Nigeria has recalled its ambassador in Pretoria for consultations over recent attacks against foreign migrant workers in a move the South African government called "regretable."
President Jacob Zuma insists his country is not against foreigners, saying that his government is taking the matter seriously and is working on a long-term plan to deal with this issue.
But what are the root causes of xenophobia in South Africa? And is the government doing enough to deal with it?
Presenter: Jane Dutton
Simon Allison - Africa editor for Daily Maverick and a consultant for the Institute of Security Studies
Andrew Asamoah - Senior researcher at the Institute of Security Studies
Eusebius McKaiser - Political analyst and social commentator
The post How will anti-migrant attacks affect S Africa’s future? appeared first on African Media Agency.
Johannesburg, South Africa - Hoisting banners and singing songs of peace, thousands of South Africans have marched through the streets of Johannesburg to show their support for foreign nationals after a spate of anti-immigrant violence across the country in recent weeks.
A procession of people spanning five kilometres marched through the city in the biggest display of solidarity with foreign nationals since the violence began on March 30, in Durban. At least eight people have been killed and thousands of others displaced since then.
Organisers said their aim was to bring together as many people as possible and denounce xenophobia.
"We wanted to show Africa and to show South Africa that we reject xenophobia, that we disassociate ourselves from violence against foreign people and that we stand for social justice and all people's dignity," Mark Heywood, the executive director of Section 27, an NGO, said.
"I think we've seen a beautiful demonstration through some of the poorest parts of Johannesburg, where many migrant people live and I've seen on the faces of migrant people, both on the march, and on the sides of the street, some reassurance that South Africa is not something that is going to murder them and hurt them," said Heywood.
The march started at the Pieter Roos Park in Hillbrow, a gritty inner-city precinct, known as a hub for Nigerian immigrants in Johannesburg, and later proceeded to an area in the city centre known as Little Ethiopia, before concluding in Newtown.
'Our blood is one'
One protester told Al Jazeera that she had come to show her support because the violence had directly affected her.
"I am here at this march because I'm a South African but I'm living among Malawian, Zimbabweans and Mozambicans," said Salma Mazibuko.
"These are my sisters and I like them. Our blood is one."
Gitacho Abolu, another protester, said he had joined the march to stand with others against xenophobia.
"My Ethiopian brothers have been injured in Durban, and another one has died. We sent his body back to Ethiopia a few days ago," Abolu said.
South Africa's reputation has taken a beating internationally following the feverish violence, with a string of African countries, including Malawi, Zimbabwe and Nigeria calling on authorities to act decisively.
On Tuesday, the South African army was deployed to "troubled spots" in areas around Johannesburg, and the KwaZulu-Natal province, in a bid to quell further violence.
Many South Africans, however, have criticised the deployment of the army as a public relations stunt geared to protect the interests of South African businesses across the continent.
Others have also expressed their concerns about the presence of soldiers in civilian areas, but some have welcomed the deployment, as proof of the government's commitment to quell the violence.
Tensions across the country remain high as immigrants are said to be living in constant fear for their lives.
"So today was just a show of solidarity. The hard work has to be done tomorrow, and the day after, and the months after to make sure that this never happens again," Heywood said.
The government has pledged to defeat the violence, and secure the lives of foreign nationals living and working in South Africans.
But there is still very little detail of how Jacob Zuma's administration plans to tackle the root of the problem, seen as gross inequality, unemployment and poor governance.
In Durban, NGOs, including South African Gift of the Givers and Doctors without Borders (MSF) said they were dealing with many cases of trauma in the camps set up for displaced foreigners across the city.
But in Johannesburg, as thousands of people marched, buoyed by cheering onlookers, the tension, and uncertainty that have marred recent weeks, appeared to fade into chants for peace and unity among Africans.
Gauteng Premier David Makhura, speaking after the march in Mary Fitzgerald Square, said his administration would now incorporate a department devoted to the affairs of immigrants living in the province.
The post South Africans denounce xenophobia in massive march appeared first on African Media Agency.
European leaders meet on Thursday in Brussels to discuss emergency measures to protect thousands of desperate migrants making treacherous sea journeys to escape war and poverty back home.
EU politicians have been scrambling for solutions in the wake of what has been described as the worst ever migrant disaster in the Mediterranean Sea, after about 800 people died on Saturday off of Libya when a people-smuggling boat capsized.
Italy's proposal to introduce "humanitarian channels" for refugees from war-torn nations could be the first step in saving lives, some officials say. But NGOs working on the ground say they fear the proposal will fail to adequately tackle the ongoing humanitarian crisis.
Italy is expected to ask for greater cooperation among European states to resettle refugees and open humanitarian channels at Thursday's emergency summit in Brussels.
These would provide a legal route into Europe for those fleeing conflict-ridden countries, including Syria and Somalia.
"I think that in certain countries where there is a clear cut case of war, a humanitarian channel can be created," Italian MP Khalid Chaouki told Al Jazeera.
In 2013, Chaouki locked himself inside a detention centre in Sicily to highlight the plight faced by migrants staying there.
"I am confident that the plan can be implemented in the near future, as there are already some European countries, such as Germany, that are trying out some models of this," said Chaouki.
Italy is also expected to ask for greater cooperation among European states in resettling refugees, and ask for the EU to review its role in responding to issues in the Mediterranean Sea.
"I think the first key political result will be to convince EU leaders there is a common border for us all," said Chaouki.
Among other key issues being discussed is building a Europe wide search-and-rescue mission.
Migrant rights groups working on the ground say they want to see a clear and immediate political solution - above all developing a Europe-wide policy towards migration not focused exclusively on the continent's security.
"It's early days but I hope this meeting will be a step in the right direction," Chaouki said.
Meanwhile flows of people fleeing war, persecution, and economic pain continue to embark on the deadly journey towards Europe.
"What we need is a European search-and-rescue mission in the Mediterranean Sea. Anything short of that will fail to avoid a new tragedy," said Giovanna di Benedetto from the NGO Save the Children.
Over the past month di Benedetto has witnessed the arrival of thousands of people, almost on a daily basis, and heard accounts of increasing violence in Libya and increasingly deadly journeys.
She was among a small group of NGO workers who on Monday provided assistance to the 27 survivors from the smuggler's shipwreck on Saturday.
Among them were four unaccompanied minors from Somalia and Bangladesh. Her team went to the refugee centre in the Sicilian town of Mascalucia where the four boys are staying.
They met Said, a 16-year old Somali boy whose journey to Italy lasted more than a year, di Benedetto told Al Jazeera.
Last summer his family handed him over to a Sudanese human trafficker in the hope he would reach his two aunts in Oslo.
On his arrival to Libya, Said, was kidnapped by criminal gangs who held him hostage for nine months inside a crammed house with hundreds of other migrants. During his stay he saw dozens of people die from malnourishment, Said recounted.
When his family was finally able to pay his ransom he headed to Tripoli, where on the night of April 18 he boarded the ill-fated ship. He said he was beaten several times as smugglers sought to cram the vessel with migrants to maximise their profit.
"Initially traffickers attempted to pack 1,200 people on an old fisherman boat, but stopped at 800 as they realised that they could not physically push people any closer together," said Di Benedetto.
When the ship capsized, Said fainted and woke up in Italy bruised but alive. Of the other 60 unaccompanied minors who left the coast of Libya with Said, only four made it to European shores.
Said said he now wants to continue his journey to reach his family in Norway, but doesn't want to put his life in the hands of traffickers again, di Benedetto recounted.
Refugees from Eritrea are the second-largest group of migrants arriving to Europe, according to a 2014 UNHCR report. Among their reasons for fleeing is the country's dictatorship and economic strife.
Amin, who asked his full name not be used fearing political persecution of his family back home, arrived at the Sicilian harbour of Siracusa two weeks ago. He fled Eritrea to avoid the army, in which he was forced to serve for 14 years on a wage of $29 per month.
For three months he travelled through Somalia, Sudan and finally to Libya, from where he also set off to Italy.
He travelled for three days on a fishing boat crammed with other 300 people without food, water, or lifejackets. "They beat us when we ask for food, even with electric sticks," he told Al Jazeera.
Giulia Chiarenza, a cultural mediator from the NGO Emergency, has been providing medical assistance to Amin and other migrants arriving at the Umberto Primo refugee centre in Siracusa.
"Many come here with burns on their backs from the engines of the boat, against which they are forced to sit as there is no other space," said Chiarenza.
"Why should these people have to die, be tortured, just to obtain what is fundamentally their right?" said Chiarenza.
Amin's boat shipwrecked off the Italian coast after the engine caught fire. "I was sure we were going to die," he said.
After several hours of distress, Amin and other passengers were rescued by an Italian Coat Guard ship.
Amin's journey cost him $4,500 and nearly his life. But throughout the interview, he continuously stressed how lucky he feels to now be in Italy.