DEVELOPING Africa’s huge onshore wind energy potential can boost its transition to affordable and reliable clean energy.
A new study for IFC, a member of the World Bank Group, shows that continental Africa possesses a stunning onshore wind potential of almost 180,000 Terawatt hours (TWh) per annum, enough to meet the entire continent’s electricity demands 250 times over.
The analysis, carried out by UK-based renewable energy consultants Everoze, finds that 27 countries in Africa have enough wind potential on their own to satisfy the entire continental electricity demand—estimated at 700 TWh annually. Algeria has the highest resource with a total potential of 7,700 Gigawatts (GW), equivalent to over 11 times current global installed wind capacity.
IFC worked in collaboration with Everoze, Vortex and GWEC to conduct the analysis. Everoze drew on high-resolution mesoscale data from the Global Wind Atlas and applied basic constraints for technical restrictions (i.e. slopes, elevation, minimum wind speed, land use cover) and basic environmental restrictions (i.e. population density, protected areas).
‘This analysis has clearly shown that Africa has world-class wind potential and that wind can play an important role in bringing clean, affordable electricity to millions on the continent,’ said Linda Munyengeterwa, IFC’s infrastructure director for the Middle East and Africa. ‘Going forward, IFC is committed to working with the public and private sector to help realise Africa’s remarkable, and largely untapped, wind potential.’
The analysis also finds that more than one-third of Africa’s wind potential is in areas with very strong winds, averaging greater than 8.5 meters per second. Seventeen of the countries analysed have particularly strong wind potential, with average productivity (as measured by their ‘capacity factors’) up to 46 percent, rivalling the most productive onshore wind sites in the world.
‘What is surprising is how distributed the wind resource is,’ said Sean Whittaker, principal industry specialist at IFC. ‘By using high-resolution mesoscale wind models and assuming the use of tall, large rotor, modern turbines we see great potential in countries not previously considered to be “windy” places, including Cote d’Ivoire, Nigeria, Botswana, Cameroon and Mozambique.’
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